To understand normalization in database with example tables, let’s assume that we are supposed to store the details of courses and instructors. Lets consider the database extract shown above. This depicts a special dieting clinic where the each patient has 4 appointments. On the first they are weighed. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of a Student .

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Boyce to develop the theory of Boyce-Codd Normal Form.

In our Student table, two different informations are kept together, Student information and Branch information. Well, a primary key is a set of columns that uniquely identifies a row. This can cause inconsistency in the database.

Here, the department column is dependent on the professor name column. Each record needs to be unique. A KEY could be a single column or combination of multiple columns Note: As an example, consider the following table:. This helps in referential integrity. Can database normalization reduce number of tables? Normalization is a database design technique which organizes tables in a manner that reduces redundancy and dependency of data.


Normalization removes redundant data so sometimes it increases the number of tables. In the next tutorial we will learn about the Fourth Normal Form. Here is what a sample database could look like:.

The Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) | Vertabelo

SQL is not very hard, so if you will start dedicatedly, you can learn fast. Marie Ramsey December 5, 9: There is no repetition. Let us first understand what a superkey means. Mary Brown December 4, For a table to satisfy the Boyce-Codd Normal Form, it should satisfy the following two conditions:. And, there is no Transitive Dependencyhence the table also satisfies the 3rd Normal Form. The book title, genre, number of pages table is in BCNF.

Consider the combination of columns course code, professor name. In the next tutorial, we will discuss about the First Normal Form in details. This also saves storage. A superkey whose size number of columns is the smallest is called as a candidate key. This video might be helpful to you: This process is known as normalization.

Each normal form has an importance which helps in optimizing the database to save storage and to reduce redundancies. George changed his mobile number.

What is Normalization? 1NF, 2NF, 3NF & BCNF with Examples

A better method would be to normalizaton the courses separately. Normalization applies to get rid of the dependencies and having minimal fields in the data table.


Cpp Java P. However, issues start to develop once we need to modify information. This depends on your application needs that it requires normalization or not. Let us take an example.

Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

Wanda Lee December 4, Why do you need all of this normalization stuff? This may not be obvious in the above simple example. But this table is not in Boyce-Codd Normal Form. Annie Martinez December 4, So, that becomes our primary key. Instructor’s name Course code Prof. The data is divided into multiple tables to achieve data integrity and data redundancy.


Here is the Third Normal Form tutorial. Also, if we were to change the mobile number of Prof. The evolution of Normalization theories is illustrated below- Database Normalization Examples – Assume a video library maintains a database of movies rented out.