The social identity model of deindividuation effects (or SIDE model) is a theory developed in Deindividuation theory was developed to explain the phenomenon that in crowds, people become capable of acts that rational individuals would not. This chapter challenges traditional models of deindividuation. These are based on the assumption that such factors as immersion in a group and anonymity lead . Reicher, S.D., Spears, R. and Postmes, T. () A Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Phenomena. European Review of Social Psychology, 6,

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Journal of Research in Personality10— Journal of Personality and Social Psychology63— Crowd psychology in South African murder trials. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research8— According to the Social Identity Theory, identity is partly constituted by the different groups of which an individual is a member, and the fact that the subject is immersed in a group and acts in accordance with its rules does not decharacterize his personality.

This state is characterized by changes in pjenomena perception of oneself and others, such that self-observation and concern for social evaluation are reduced.

In members are unable to identify the self may have con- J. Crowd behaviour as social action.

To test this proposition, they conducted an experiment with psychology students. To measure the variable of cheating, participants were asked deindividuatioh state how often they cheated in online games. Russell Spears 62 Estimated H-index: Deindividuation theory suggests that anonymity leads to a loss of self-awareness, and this loss leads to a rise in antinormative behavior.

A Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Phenomena

They were also told that the levels of shock applied individually could be monitored by the researchers and that these levels would be socizl and discussed with each participant at the end of the experiment.


These changes made the subjects in the deindividuated condition feel more anxious and self-conscious, causing the opposite effect of what was expected.

The effects of anonymity on group behavior. Crowd behavior dientity social action. Adicciones25— In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of attacks on adherents of Islam in Europe and the emergence of new anti-immigration groups European Police Office, The items could be answered on scales from 1 to 10 and took into account public and private self-awareness as well as the deindividuated state.

Therefore, according to previous research about deindividuation, internal attentional cues and high accountability mkdel are less likely to generate antinormative behavior than external attentional cues and low accountability cues are.

Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Diener 1 Estimated H-index: This reduction of inner restraints facilitates the elicitation of suppressed behaviors, which may transgress social norms. There is also the possibility of using eocial mathematical models to establish conditions in which there is a greater likelihood for deindividuation to occur.

The net result is deindjviduation people will tend to perceive self and others in terms of stereotypic group features, and are influenced accordingly. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Those who were in the deindividuated condition felt more frightened and tense even before the experiment began soon after putting on their garments.

According to the author, it is essential to consider the difference between social norms, which refer to the general context of everyday life, and group norms, which are specific to each group in certain situations. The private component involves an internal and personal focus, such as when a person focuses on his or her perceptions, feelings and thoughts.


A field application of the SIDE model. The authors suggest that only a reduction in phrnomena self-awareness is related to the deindividuation process. There are situations in which soccial look at ourselves essentially as individuals, focusing on our idiosyncrasies and highlighting our personal identity.

Social identity model of deindividuation effects

Silvia Helena Koller silvia. This experiment contributed to the solidification of the construct phenomenaa demonstrating how self-awareness influences the occurrence of the phenomenon, complementing studies of cognitive activity during deindividuation. European Phnomena of Social Psychology6— With the penetration of the Internet in society, many daily activities involve online interactions.

Importantly, and in contrast to deindividuation, the psychological state of depersonalization does not imply a loss of rationality or behavioural disinhibition; rather, the individual behaves rationally and regulates behaviour according to ingroup standards. The average identification with the group was 3. Also, there is a bigger satisfaction than if the individual were in an individuated group.

Phenlmena, studies involving SIDE do not have good ecological validity because they are restricted to laboratory conditions and involve hypothetical scenarios without consequences beyond the laboratory Postmes et al.

The conceptual history will show that the relationship between deindividuation and antinormative behavior has been prioritized, which may have delayed the investigation of the relationship between deindividuation and prosocial behavior.